Models in the past

Nicholas Grimshaw&Partners.Hexagonal net caused by soap bubbles.

Daniel Libeskind

Daniel Libeskind

Orion Building -Post Graduate Centre of London Metropolitan University 166-220 Holloway Rd, London N7 8DB

Japan Pavillion Expo 2000 Hannover

The Japanese Pavilion for Expo 2000 , held in Hannover, Germany , was a grid structure made ​​of recyclable paper tubes resulting in a building with honeycomb . The design by Shigeru Ban , was conducted jointly with other architectural consultants , as Frei Otto , creator of Munich Olympic Stadium and the German Pavilion at Expo 67 in Montreal , Buro Happold , English engineering company responsible for the Millennium Dome and Stefan Polonyi , professor of structural engineering . It took three weeks to assemble the building 72m long, 35m wide and 15.5m high , on a plot of 5,450 m² , crenate an exhibition area of 3.015m ² and administrative offices.

1.Multihalle Mannheim, installing the grid 2.Multihalle Mannheim, inside and outside the roof covering

Federal Garden Exhibitionn Cologne, 1957

Richard Buckminster "Bucky" Fuller

Richard Buckminster "Bucky" Fuller 

was an American neo-futuristic architect, systems theorist, author, designer, and inventor.

Fuller published more than 30 books, coining or popularizing terms such as "Spaceship Earth", ephemeralization, and synergetic. He also developed numerous inventions, mainly architectural designs, and popularized the widely known geodesic dome. Carbon molecules known as fullerenes were later named by scientists for their resemblance to geodesic spheres.

Buckminster Fuller was the second president of Mensa from 1974 to 1983.


Spaceship Earth is a world view term usually expressing concern over the use of limited resources available on Earth and encouraging everyone on it to act as a harmonious crew working toward the greater good.

Ephemeralization, a term coined by R. Buckminster Fuller, is the ability of technological advancement to do "more and more with less and less until eventually you can do everything with nothing". Fuller's vision was that ephemeralization will result in ever-increasing standards of living for an ever-growing population despite finite resources. The concept has been embraced by those who argue against Malthusian philosophy.

Mensa is the largest and oldest high IQ society in the world. It is a non-profit organization open to people who score at the 98th percentile or higher on a standardized, supervised IQ or other approved intelligence test. Mensa is formally composed of national groups and the umbrella organization Mensa International, with a registered office in Caythorpe, Lincolnshire, England.


Best-known work

For the next half-century, Fuller developed many ideas, designs and inventions, particularly regarding practical, inexpensive shelter and transportation. He documented his life, philosophy and ideas scrupulously by a daily diary (later called the Dymaxion Chronofile), and by twenty-eight publications. Fuller financed some of his experiments with inherited funds, sometimes augmented by funds invested by his collaborators, one example being the Dymaxion car project.

The Dymaxion Chronofile is Buckminster Fuller's attempt to document his life as completely as possible. He created a very large scrapbook in which he documented his life every 15 minutes from 1920 to 1983. The scrapbook contains copies of all correspondence, bills, notes, sketches, and clippings from newspapers. The total collection is estimated to be 270 feet (80 m) worth of paper. This is said to be the most documented human life in history.

If somebody kept a very accurate record of a human being, going through the era from the Gay '90s, from a very different kind of world through the turn of the century—as far into the twentieth century as you might live. I decided to make myself a good case history of such a human being and it meant that I could not be judge of what was valid to put in or not. I must put everything in, so I started a very rigorous record

—Buckminster Fuller, Oregon Lecture, 12 July 1962

The Montreal Biosphère by Buckminster Fuller, 1967

Porter, Tom&Neale, John, Architectural Supermodels: physical design simulation

Structural models

Structural models for the National Museum of Contemporary Art, Osaka, Japan and for the Mystic Marinelife Aquarium and Sea Research Foundation, Connecticut

Daniel Liberskind's Spiral, V&A. model

From the book Architectural Supermodels.

Daniel Libeskind

Daniel Libeskind (born May 12, 1946) is a Polish-American architect, artist, professor and set designer of Polish Jewish descent. Libeskind founded Studio Daniel Libeskind in 1989 with his wife, Nina, and is its principal design architect.

Daniel Libeskind

Jewish Museum Berlin

Frei Otto, Complete works: lightweight construction, natural design

   Frei Otto

Frei Otto, German architect and structural engineer. The 1972 Munich Olympic Stadium is perhaps his best known work. The pioneering tensile structure, which stood in considerable contrast to the strict, authoritarian stadium that was its predecessor, was meant to present a different, more compassionate face for Germany. Today, Frei Otto is still active in practice, working alongside architects such as Pritzker prize winner Shigeru Ban on the Japanese Pavilion at Expo 2000. Otto is the world's leading authority on lightweight tensile and membrane structures, and has pioneered advances in structural mathematics and civil engineering.

AD Classics: Munich Olympic Stadium / Frei Otto & Gunther Behnisch

Often mentioned as a pioneer in lightweight tensile and membrane construction, yet overshadowed in the discipline of architecture, Frei Otto along with Gunther Behnisch collaborated to design the 1972 Munich Olympic Stadium in Munich, Germany. With the Olympics having already been held in Berlin in 1936, Otto and Behnisch took the second Olympics games in Germany as an opportunity and a second chance to show Germany in a new light. Their goal was to design a structure that would emulate the games motto: “The Happy Games” as more of a whimsical architectural response that would overshadow the heavy, authoritarian stadium in Berlin

Le Corbusier

Pavillon Philips, exposition internationale de 1958, Brussels, Belgium, 1958 The structure is composed of hyperbolic-paraboloid shells which, up to now, have not been used for problems of this type. The walls are constructed of rough slabs cast in sand moulds on the ground, measuring about 5'-0" on a side and 2" in thickness. They are mounted in place by means of a movable scaffolding and are supported by a double network of cables, 3" in diameter, suspended along the cylindrical directrices of strongly reinforced concrete. Such is the principal of the structure. The electronic poem of Le Corbusier at the Philips Pavilion marks the first appearance of a new art form : "The Elec­tronic Games", a synthesis unlimited in its possibilities for color, imagery, music, words and rythm.

Le Corbusier

Heidi Weber Museum.

Agkathidis, Asterios. Modular Structures in Design and Architecture

fractal tree: self-similar geometric modules

Public Square and Main Building for the Andean Development Corporation (CAF) Caracas, Venezuela 2008

Vladimir Tatlin's model for his Monumental to the Third International. Courtesy: British Architectural Library, RIBA, London

Light Gallery. Light dimension.

This illustration shows two model interiors of galleries in Steven Holl's design for the Belleview Art Museum, Washington. Lighting conditions and a spirit of openness are critical to the unfolding experience of pedestrian movement through the galleries. Underpinning Holl's organisational theme of triplexes are three different gallery spaces on three levels. These are designed in relation to three different concepts of time and three circulation options.

Consequently, the supermodel seems to have re-established itself as a vital design tool at the beginning of the twentieth century. Indeed, it was to play a significant role in witnessing the birth pangs of countless built and unbuilt Modernist icons. For instance, there was Vladimir Tatlin's quest for a monumental metaphor for the harmony of a new social order expressed in the huge Monument to the Third International model of his learning, twin helicoidal tower. 

Daniel Libeskind

Daniel Libeskind

Church under a large transparent covering, 1962

Study for watercolour ''The Continuous membrane", summer 1965

 Le Corbusier

Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, who was better known as Le Corbusier ( October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture. He was born in Switzerland and became a French citizen in 1930. His career spanned five decades, with his buildings constructed throughout Europe, India, and America.

Dedicated to providing better living conditions for the residents of crowded cities, Le Corbusier was influential in urban planning, and was a founding member of the Congrès International d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM).

Le Corbusier, widely acclaimed as the most influential architect of the 20th century, was also a celebrated thinker, writer and artist - a multi-faceted ‘renaissance man’. His architecture and radical ideas for reinventing modern living, from private villas to large scale social housing to utopian urban plans, still resonate today.

Le Corbusier

Barbican Art Gallery

Serpentine Galleries Pavilion 201


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